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Thread: VB6 - GetFile

  1. #1

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    VB6 - GetFile

    Attached are sample programs that facilitate downloading a file from a remote server using encryption. It was adapted from SendFile.
    https://www.vbforums.com/showthread....-File-Transfer

    The encryption protocol I have chosen to use in this sample program is RC4. It is fast and its limitations are overcome by using a 256 bit key and relatively large record sizes. The current sample uses TLS 1.3 to establish the network connection. The Agreed Secret calculated by each party is then used as the key for the file transfer.

    The server program (FileServer.exe) listens on port 1159. Modify the SharePath to reflect the location you wish to share files from. The client program (GetFile.exe) currently defaults to the loopback address. Change the server location to an IP address or a domain name. A domain name must be DNS hosted or configured in the "HOSTS" file. The Path reflects where you want to download files to. Click the "Connect" button, and if successful the files available on the server will be listed in the ListBox. Clicking on a file in that list will download and store the file with a MsgBox relecting that information.

    This Version uses TLS 1.3 protocols to establish the connection. By default ECDH_P256 is used, but ECDH_P384 or ECDH_P521 can also be used. Normally, the server program would run as a service. If there is sufficient interest, I can add that feature. Authentication via UserID/Password can also be added.

    J.A. Coutts
    Attached Files Attached Files

  2. #2
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    > The encryption protocol I have chosen to use in this sample program is RC4. It is fast and its limitations are overcome by using a 256 bit key and relatively large record sizes.

    Btw, RC4 is completely broken cipher nowadays and there is no fixing it using large keys/records.

    cheers,
    </wqw>

  3. #3

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by wqweto View Post
    > The encryption protocol I have chosen to use in this sample program is RC4. It is fast and its limitations are overcome by using a 256 bit key and relatively large record sizes.

    Btw, RC4 is completely broken cipher nowadays and there is no fixing it using large keys/records.

    cheers,
    </wqw>
    I disagree. RC4 is a stream cipher traditionally using a 40 or 128 bit stored key. That left it vulnerable to figuring out the key from short encryptions or many encryption samples. That has made it unsuitable for TLS connections. This application uses a different 256 bit key for every connection and is not used on short encryptions. Even if a hacker figures out the key for one episode, it is useless for the next.

    J.A. Coutts

  4. #4
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Wikipedia states it plainly in its first paragraph: "multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in RC4, rendering it insecure"

    I personally use it only in legacy projects started 20+ years ago. If I have a choice nowadays I would use some more modern and stronger cipher.

    cheers,
    </wqw>

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Take a closer look at each of those vulnerabilities. They are all based on the fact that the key stream produced by RC4 and a fixed key are pseudo random. If the key used to produce the key stream is truly random, then the key stream itself will also be truly random. The Agreed Secret produced by ECC is considered to be truly random.

    J.A. Coutts

  6. #6
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by couttsj View Post
    If the key used to produce the key stream is truly random, then the key stream itself will also be truly random.
    Not for RC4. The cipher is biased i.e. it's output is not "truly random" no matter how random the key is. Please, stop using it for any meaningful purpose :-))

    I mean, using it here for GetFile is OK I guess, though a bit strange, provided you have all the power of BCrypt API to implement whatever cipher you want.

    cheers,
    </wqw>

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    We will have to agree to disagree. But in the original VBA code for RC4 that I ran across, the author had added the commented code in the code below. He had suggested that it improved the security of the cipher, which I am having a hard time understanding. If the hacker knows that I added those extra cycles, how would it improve the security?

    J.A. Coutts
    Code:
    Private Function RunRC4(bText() As Byte, bKey() As Byte) As Byte()
        Static allBytes() As Byte
        Dim s()         As Byte
        Dim kLen        As Long
        Dim bTmp        As Byte
        Dim I           As Long
        Dim J           As Long
        Dim lPtr        As Long
        Dim sLen As Long
        Dim bResult()   As Byte
    On Error GoTo RunErr
        If GetbSize(allBytes) = 0 Then
            ReDim allBytes(255)
            For lPtr = 0 To 255
                allBytes(lPtr) = lPtr
            Next
        End If
        s = allBytes
        kLen = GetbSize(bKey)
        For I = 0 To 255
            J = (J + s(I) + bKey(I Mod kLen)) Mod 256
            bTmp = s(I)
            s(I) = s(J)
            s(J) = bTmp
        Next I
        I = 0
        J = 0
        'DebugPrintByte "Initial", S
        'For lPtr = 0 To 3071
        '    I = (I + 1) Mod 256
        '    J = (J + S(I)) Mod 256
        '    bTmp = S(I)
        '    S(I) = S(J)
        '    S(J) = bTmp
        'Next lPtr
        'DebugPrintByte "Cycled", S
        sLen = GetbSize(bText)
        ReDim bResult(sLen - 1)
        For lPtr = 0 To sLen - 1
            I = (I + 1) Mod 256
            J = (J + s(I)) Mod 256
            bTmp = s(I)
            s(I) = s(J)
            s(J) = bTmp
            bResult(lPtr) = s((CLng(s(I)) + s(J)) Mod 256) Xor bText(lPtr)
        Next lPtr
        RunRC4 = bResult
        Exit Function
    RunErr:
        Erase bResult
        RunRC4 = bResult
    End Function

  8. #8
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by couttsj View Post
    He had suggested that it improved the security of the cipher. . .
    This improves nothing, some kind of security through obscurity.

    In every cryptanalysis scenario the attacker has the algorithm, has the source code, has everything with comments and explanations if you wish. The only thing they don't have is the key, this is the only secret in the whole scenario.

    Everyone can get FileServer.exe from your zip above and take a look at the disassembly and reverse the modified algorithm. So the code is believed to be available to the attacker, it's not a secret and only the keys are secret.

    cheers,
    </wqw>

  9. #9

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    I wanted to understand the vulnerabilities in RC4 better, and I found this study that re-examines the Mantin biases.

    Analysing and exploiting the Mantin biases in RC4
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936655/

    Quoting from the introduction:
    "We explore the use of the Mantin biases (Mantin, Eurocrypt 2005) to recover plaintexts from RC4-encrypted traffic. We provide a more fine-grained analysis of these biases than in Mantin’s original work. We show that, in fact, the original analysis was incorrect in certain cases: the Mantin biases are sometimes non-existent, and sometimes stronger than originally predicted. We then show how to use these biases in a plaintext recovery attack. Our attack targets two unknown bytes of plaintext that are located close to sequences of known plaintext bytes, a situation that arises in practice when RC4 is used in, for example, TLS. We provide a statistical framework that enables us to make predictions about the performance of this attack and its variants. We then extend the attack using standard dynamic programming techniques to tackle the problem of recovering longer plaintexts, a setting of practical interest in recovering HTTP session cookies and user passwords that are protected by RC4 in TLS. We perform experiments showing that we can successfully recover 16-byte plaintexts with 80% success rate using 2^31 ciphertexts, an improvement over previous attacks."

    I presume that they chose 16 bytes, because that is the length of the secret key used to create the key stream. To arrive at this result, they fed 16 unknown text bytes, along with 65 known text bytes on each side of the unknown bytes, into the list Viterbi algorithm. After 2,147,483,648 inputs, they were able to recover the unknown 16 text bytes 80% of the time. To quote the study:
    "This is a situation of practical interest in attacking session cookies [1] and passwords [4] that are protected by RC4 in TLS." Cookies and passwords are transmitted in know positions in TLS, and for this reason, RC4 is not permitted to be used in TLS.

    J.A. Coutts

  10. #10
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Btw, here is a standard VB6 module which implements ChaCha20 cipher (from the Salsa20 family of ciphers) in compact 140 lines of code

    Code:
    '--- mdChaCha20.bas
    Option Explicit
    DefObj A-Z
    
    #Const HasPtrSafe = (VBA7 <> 0) Or (TWINBASIC <> 0)
    
    #If HasPtrSafe Then
    Private Declare PtrSafe Sub CopyMemory Lib "kernel32" Alias "RtlMoveMemory" (Destination As Any, Source As Any, ByVal Length As LongPtr)
    #Else
    Private Declare Sub CopyMemory Lib "kernel32" Alias "RtlMoveMemory" (Destination As Any, Source As Any, ByVal Length As Long)
    #End If
    
    Private LNG_POW2(0 To 31)   As Long
    
    Public Type CryptoChaCha20Context
        Constant(0 To 3)    As Long
        Key(0 To 7)         As Long
        Nonce(0 To 3)       As Long
        Block(0 To 63)      As Byte
        NBlock              As Long
        NCounter            As Long
    End Type
    
    Private Function ROTL32(ByVal lX As Long, ByVal lN As Long) As Long
        '--- ROTL32 = LShift(X, n) Or RShift(X, 32 - n)
        Debug.Assert lN <> 0
        ROTL32 = ((lX And (LNG_POW2(31 - lN) - 1)) * LNG_POW2(lN) Or -((lX And LNG_POW2(31 - lN)) <> 0) * LNG_POW2(31)) Or _
            ((lX And (LNG_POW2(31) Xor -1)) \ LNG_POW2(32 - lN) Or -(lX < 0) * LNG_POW2(lN - 1))
    End Function
    
    Private Function UAdd(ByVal lX As Long, ByVal lY As Long) As Long
        If (lX Xor lY) > 0 Then
            UAdd = ((lX Xor &H80000000) + lY) Xor &H80000000
        Else
            UAdd = lX + lY
        End If
    End Function
    
    Private Sub pvInit()
        Dim lIdx            As Long
        
        If LNG_POW2(0) = 0 Then
            LNG_POW2(0) = 1
            For lIdx = 1 To 30
                LNG_POW2(lIdx) = LNG_POW2(lIdx - 1) * 2
            Next
            LNG_POW2(31) = &H80000000
        End If
    End Sub
    
    Private Sub pvChaCha20Quarter(lA As Long, lB As Long, lC As Long, lD As Long)
        lA = UAdd(lA, lB): lD = ROTL32(lD Xor lA, 16)
        lC = UAdd(lC, lD): lB = ROTL32(lB Xor lC, 12)
        lA = UAdd(lA, lB): lD = ROTL32(lD Xor lA, 8)
        lC = UAdd(lC, lD): lB = ROTL32(lB Xor lC, 7)
    End Sub
    
    Private Sub pvChaCha20Core(uCtx As CryptoChaCha20Context, baOutput() As Byte)
        Static lZ(0 To 15)  As Long
        Static lX(0 To 15)  As Long
        Dim lIdx            As Long
        
        Call CopyMemory(lZ(0), uCtx.Constant(0), 16 * 4)
        Call CopyMemory(lX(0), uCtx.Constant(0), 16 * 4)
        For lIdx = 0 To 9
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(0), lZ(4), lZ(8), lZ(12)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(1), lZ(5), lZ(9), lZ(13)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(2), lZ(6), lZ(10), lZ(14)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(3), lZ(7), lZ(11), lZ(15)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(0), lZ(5), lZ(10), lZ(15)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(1), lZ(6), lZ(11), lZ(12)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(2), lZ(7), lZ(8), lZ(13)
            pvChaCha20Quarter lZ(3), lZ(4), lZ(9), lZ(14)
        Next
        For lIdx = 0 To 15
            lX(lIdx) = UAdd(lX(lIdx), lZ(lIdx))
        Next
        Call CopyMemory(baOutput(0), lX(0), 16 * 4)
    End Sub
    
    Public Sub CryptoChaCha20Init(uCtx As CryptoChaCha20Context, baKey() As Byte, baNonce() As Byte, Optional ByVal NCounter As Long = 4)
        Dim sConstant       As String
        Dim baFull(0 To 15) As Byte
        
        Debug.Assert UBound(baKey) + 1 = 16 Or UBound(baKey) + 1 = 32
        With uCtx
            pvInit
            If UBound(baKey) = 31 Then
                Call CopyMemory(.Key(0), baKey(0), 32)
                sConstant = "expand 32-byte k"
            Else
                Call CopyMemory(.Key(0), baKey(0), 16)
                Call CopyMemory(.Key(4), baKey(0), 16)
                sConstant = "expand 16-byte k"
            End If
            Call CopyMemory(.Constant(0), ByVal sConstant, Len(sConstant))
            If UBound(baNonce) >= UBound(baFull) Then
                Call CopyMemory(baFull(0), baNonce(0), UBound(baFull) + 1)
            ElseIf UBound(baNonce) >= 0 Then
                Call CopyMemory(baFull(15 - UBound(baNonce)), baNonce(0), UBound(baNonce) + 1)
            End If
            Call CopyMemory(.Nonce(0), baFull(0), 16)
            .NBlock = 0
            .NCounter = NCounter '--- part of Nonce that get incremented after pvChaCha20Core (in DWORDs)
        End With
    End Sub
    
    Public Sub CryptoChaCha20Cipher(uCtx As CryptoChaCha20Context, baInput() As Byte, Optional ByVal Pos As Long, Optional ByVal Size As Long = -1)
        Const BLOCKSZ       As Long = 64
        Dim lOffset         As Long
        Dim lTaken          As Long
        Dim lIdx            As Long
        
        With uCtx
            If Size < 0 Then
                Size = UBound(baInput) + 1 - Pos
            End If
            Do While Size > 0
                If .NBlock = 0 Then
                    pvChaCha20Core uCtx, .Block
                    For lIdx = 0 To .NCounter - 1
                        uCtx.Nonce(lIdx) = UAdd(uCtx.Nonce(lIdx), 1)
                        If uCtx.Nonce(lIdx) <> 0 Then
                            Exit For
                        End If
                    Next
                    .NBlock = BLOCKSZ
                End If
                lOffset = BLOCKSZ - .NBlock
                lTaken = .NBlock
                If Size < lTaken Then
                    lTaken = Size
                End If
                For lIdx = 0 To lTaken - 1
                    baInput(Pos) = baInput(Pos) Xor .Block(lOffset)
                    Pos = Pos + 1
                    lOffset = lOffset + 1
                Next
                .NBlock = .NBlock - lTaken
                Size = Size - lTaken
            Loop
        End With
    End Sub
    It might not be shorter that RC4 implementation but is quite strong stream cipher (based on 64-byte block for internal state).

    cheers,
    </wqw>

  11. #11

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by wqweto View Post
    Btw, here is a standard VB6 module which implements ChaCha20 cipher (from the Salsa20 family of ciphers) in compact 140 lines of code

    It might not be shorter that RC4 implementation but is quite strong stream cipher (based on 64-byte block for internal state).

    cheers,
    </wqw>
    Thanks wqweto;
    I will have a look at it.

    J.A. Coutts

  12. #12
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Btw, some crypto best practices links (chronologically):


    And a summary of the above (from here):

    Code:
                            Percival            Ptacek                  Latacora
                            (2009)              (2015)                  (2018)
                                                
    Online backups          tarsnap             tarsnap                 tarsnap
                                                
    Symmetric key length    256-bit             256-bit                 256 bit
                                                
    Symmetric “Signatures”  HMAC                HMAC                    HMAC
                                                
    Random IDs              256-bit             256-bit                 256-bit
                                                
    Hashing algorithm       SHA256 (SHA-2)      SHA-2                   SHA-2
                                                
                                                
    Password handling       scrypt              scrypt                  scrypt  
                            PBKDF2              bcrypt                  argon2
                                                PBKDF2                  bcrypt
                                                                        PBKDF2
                                                
    Website security        OpenSSL             OpenSSL                 AWS ALB/ELB
                                                BoringSSL               OpenSSL
                                                AWS ELBs                LetsEncrypt
                                                
    Client-server           OpenSSL             OpenSSL                 AWS ALB/ELB
    app security                                BoringSSL               OpenSSL
                                                AWS ELBs                LetsEncrypt
                                                
                                                
    Asymmetric encryption   [1]                 NaCl/libsodium          NaCl/libsodium
                                                
                                                
    Asymmetric signatures   [2]                 NaCl                    NaCl
                                                Ed25519                 Ed25519
                                                RFC6979
                                                
    Diffie-Hellman          [3]                 DH-2048                 Nothing
                                                NaCl                    Curve25519
                                                
                                                
    Encrypting Data:        AES-CTR HMAC        NaCl/libsodium default  KMS
                                                ChaCha20-Poly1305       XSalsa20+Poly1305
                                                AES-GCM
    Notable quote: "Don't ever use RC4, which is comically broken."

    cheers,
    </wqw>

  13. #13

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    wqweto;

    I came up with this encryption routine several years ago and incorporated it into a DLL. Being a DLL, it was very easy to test in this application, and it worked like a charm.
    Code:
    Private Function Encrypt(bArray() As Byte, bKey() As Byte) As Byte()
        Dim lPtr1 As Long
        Dim lPtr2 As Long
        Dim bTmp() As Byte
        Dim Block() As Byte
        Dim iLen As Integer
        Dim M%, N%
        On Error GoTo EncryptErr
        iLen = (7 And (bKey(0) Xor bKey(1))) + 2
        Block = bKey
        N% = iLen
        For lPtr1 = 0 To UBound(bKey) Step N%
            Do Until N% = 0
                N% = N% - 1
                If lPtr1 + N% > UBound(bKey) Then Exit Do
                Block(lPtr1 + N%) = bKey(lPtr1 + M%)
                M% = M% + 1
            Loop
            M% = 0: N% = iLen
        Next lPtr1
        Block = HashData(HashAlg, Block)
        lPtr1 = UBound(bArray)
        ReDim bTmp(lPtr1)
        lPtr2 = iLen
        For lPtr1 = 0 To lPtr1
            bTmp(lPtr1) = bArray(lPtr1) Xor Block(lPtr2)
            If lPtr2 < UBound(Block) Then
                lPtr2 = lPtr2 + 1
            Else
                Block = HashData(HashAlg, Block)
                lPtr2 = (7 And (Block(0) Xor Block(1)))
            End If
        Next lPtr1
        Encrypt = bTmp
    EncryptErr:
    End Function
    Using the Agreed Secret as the starting key (32 bytes), the starting point for the creation of the first block is calculated from the first 2 bytes of the Agreed Secret. After creation, the block is then hashed to form the first block to be used in the creation of the Key Stream. The Key Stream is then xor'd with the Data using the same starting point. That is to say, not all of the Key Stream is used to encrypt the data. The first encryption length could be anywhere from 22 bytes to 30 bytes. When it runs out of bytes in the Key Stream, a new block is created by hashing the previous block, with a new starting point calculated from the previous block. The subsequent encryption lengths will be from 24 bytes to 32 bytes. Repetition of encryption lengths is thus avoided.

    Let me know what you think.

    J.A. Coutts

  14. #14
    PowerPoster wqweto's Avatar
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    This looks like the key stream is some concatenation of successive recursive hashes like this

    KS = H(K') || H(H(K')) || H(H(H(K'))) || ...

    where H is the chosen hash and K' is some transmutation of the key (doesn't matter how weird the indexing is) and additionally some truncation of the H result up to key size.

    There is a topic on crypto.stackexchange.com about Stream Cipher Key Stream from Successive Hashes and a quote:

    "The Insecurity of Proposed Scheme

    It is not as secure as it seems, in modern cryptography standards it is totally insecure."

    cheers,
    </wqw>

  15. #15

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by wqweto View Post
    Btw, here is a standard VB6 module which implements ChaCha20 cipher (from the Salsa20 family of ciphers) in compact 140 lines of code

    It might not be shorter that RC4 implementation but is quite strong stream cipher (based on 64-byte block for internal state).

    cheers,
    </wqw>
    My own encryption routine turned out to be too slow. That is probably why I stopped working on it. So then I tried ChaCha20. In the IDE, it was also relatively slow, but not compiled. Using a 1.6 MB file on the local network:
    In IDE
    My own: 4.9 seconds
    My own as DLL: 3.3 seconds
    ChaCha20: 3.0 seconds
    RC4: 1.6 seconds

    Compiled
    My own: 4.9 seconds
    My own as DLL: 4.8 seconds
    ChaCha20: 1.6 seconds
    RC4: 1.6 seconds

    I will work on ChaCha20 to see if I can speed it up. Is the Nonce actually used in this particular case?

    J.A. Coutts

  16. #16
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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by couttsj View Post
    In IDE
    ChaCha20: 3.0 seconds

    Compiled
    ChaCha20: 1.6 seconds

    I will work on ChaCha20 to see if I can speed it up.
    I get much better results for ChaCha, when native compiled (not to "PCode").

    In IDE (all with a 1.6Mio ByteArray as Input-Data):
    about 1250msec

    native compiled (all "extended options" unchecked):
    about 120msec

    native compiled (all "extended options" checked):
    about 90msec

    So, (native) that's about 20MB per second throughput on an average modern CPU.

    Olaf

  17. #17

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Quote Originally Posted by Schmidt View Post
    I get much better results for ChaCha, when native compiled (not to "PCode").

    In IDE (all with a 1.6Mio ByteArray as Input-Data):
    about 1250msec

    native compiled (all "extended options" unchecked):
    about 120msec

    native compiled (all "extended options" checked):
    about 90msec

    So, (native) that's about 20MB per second throughput on an average modern CPU.

    Olaf
    Those times are those required to send the records with a maximum size of 16,389 bytes over a local network, including the file read time. In the case of the RC4 and ChaCha20 compiled times, I am pretty sure that the limitation is network speed, not computational speed, and I am don't know why the IDE time for ChaCha20 is so high. If I was to use the Loopback address, I might get more accurate computational times.

    J.A. Coutts

  18. #18

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    Re: VB6 - GetFile

    Using a cutdown version of ChaCha20 (32 byte only) configured as a Class, I ran a few more tests. Using the loopback address on the compiled programs of the RC4 and ChaCha20 versions made no difference. Both transferred a 1.6 MB file in about 1.6 seconds. Disabling the network transfer itself:
    ChaCha20 in the IDE: 1,783 ms
    ChaCha20 compiled: 156 ms
    RC4 in the IDE: 141 ms
    RC4 compiled: 15 ms

    ChaCha Ratio = 1783/156 = 11.4
    RC4 Ratio = 141/15 = 9.4

    Although the RC4 times were faster, the ChaCha20 times are quite acceptable. Let me know if you think I should update the download.

    J.A. Coutts

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